When we walk or stand, our body weight is carried first on the heel and then on the ball of the foot, where the skin is thicker, to withstand the pressure. When this pressure becomes excessive, some areas of the skin thicken, in the form of corns and callus, as a protective response.
A callus, or callosity, is an extended area of thickened skin on the soles of the feet, and occurs on areas of pressure. It is the body's reaction to pressure or friction, and can appear anywhere the skin rubs against a bone, a shoe, or the ground.
Athlete’s foot is a common condition caused by a fungal infection. An itchy red rash develops in the spaces between your toes. As well as being itchy, the skin in the affected area may be scaly, flaky and dry.
The medical name for athlete’s foot is Tinea Pedis.
Verrucae are warts, usually found on the soles of the foot, although they can grow around the toes.
Verrucae are caused by a papilomavirus, which is also responsible for warts on other parts of the body. The virus is contagious and seems to thrive in damp conditions - such as swimming pools, showers and bathrooms. It can only be caught by direct contact with the virus, by walking on say, wet surfaces or by using infected towels. Cuts and foot injuries can increase the risk of picking up a verruca.
If you look at an adult foot from the inside, you'll usually notice an upward curve in the middle. This is called an arch. Tendons -- tight bands that attach at the heel and foot bones -- form the arch. Several tendons in your foot and lower leg work together to form the arches in your foot.
When the tendons all pull the proper amount, then your foot forms a moderate, normal arch. When tendons do not pull together properly, there is little or no arch. This is called flat foot or fallen arch.